What are the best techniques for bone regeneration due to periodontal disease?
Periodontitis, or periodontal disease, describes an infection in the surrounding structures of the teeth, including the gums and underlying bone. Mainly caused by poor oral hygiene, periodontitis is preventable and curable, although tooth loss occurs if the infection goes untreated. The bacteria that causes periodontitis will begin to eat away at the bone and tissue until bone regeneration becomes a necessary measure.
Guided Tissue Regeneration
This technique for bone regeneration uses artificial membranes, lodged between the gum and bone, to block tissue growth and stimulate bone regeneration. Through this procedure, the gum is opened in surgery and the infected area below the gum is cleaned out to remove concentrated bacteria. The inserted membrane will eventually dissolve or be removed, and new bone will begin to generate.
The bone graft technique uses bone-replacement material to fill the bone where necessary and guide regeneration of the bone. The grafted bone material may be taken from your own mouth, from a synthetic source or from a tissue bank. In this procedure, the doctor will create a minimal incision in the gum, exposing the jaw bone, and place the graft material in the area. The gum is then stitched back in place to heal.
For bone regeneration, tissue engineering is a highly-progressive advancement, utilizing a combination of cells to engineer new bone-generating tissues. This strategic mix of cells (potentially including the patient’s own tissues) will effectively stimulate bone reproduction. Tissue engineering is a preferred bone regeneration technique, as these cells merge well with existing tissue.
These techniques for bone regeneration are often used separately, but also often used in conjunction with each other to ensure successful growth of bone-generating cells. Depending on your specific condition and how far the periodontal disease has progressed, any or all of the above techniques may be used to stimulate bone growth and replace defective or missing bone.
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